Experiments with new low latency PyPy garbage collector in a thread.

TLDR; less performance spikes, faster average performance, PyPy is a good Python for games and multimedia apps on desktop systems, running GC in a thread is a good idea for GIL releasing apps.

In March 2018 at the PyPy winter sprint I spent some days working on improving pygame support on PyPy. Part of this was investigating pypy frame drop. In there I found PyPy had both lower average performance in this pygame-using-CPython-API benchmark, and had spikes which caused frame drops. Remember that in latency sensitive applications performance spikes are not allowed. Note that not very much of this code is pure python (where PyPy is fastest), so it's almost a worst case benchmark for PyPy performance.

Thanks to Antonio, the PyPy team and their supporters things have much improved since then. One improvement in particular is that PyPy now allows more control of when the Garbage Collection does its work. Read more about it in the blog post "PyPy for low latency systems".

In this post I'm going to compare my experiments with pygame with the experiments done last year. Additionally I'm going to try a new thing to improve performance which wasn't possible last year.

Running garbage collection in a thread.

Now that we can call garbage collection when we want, how about we do it when we release the GIL and do some other processing in C? PyPy doesn't run the garbage collector in a thread by default, but we can do that ourselves.

Remember that python has a GIL that can be released when you want to do IO or CPU intensive work. Here is an example program which has a thread waiting to be told when to run the incremental garbage collection step.

# Run pypy GC in background.
from Queue import Queue
from threading import Thread
import pygame

def gc_collect_step(q):
    """ this calls the gc in a thread.
    """
    while True:
        print '5) GC THREAD: Waiting to do gc.'
        ready_to_go = q.get()
        print '4) GC THREAD: calling gc_collect_step'
        if hasattr(gc, "collect_step"):
            gc.collect_step()
        q.task_done()

gc_queue = Queue()
worker = Thread(target=gc_collect_step, args=(gc_queue,))
worker.setDaemon(True)
worker.start()

pygame.display.set_mode((640, 480))
clock = pygame.time.Clock()
while True:
    print('1) at top of loop')
    pygame.event.get()
    gc_queue.put(True)

    print('2) tell GC thread to collect')
    print('3) flipping display. GIL released')
    pygame.display.flip()
    print ('6) finished flipping. GIL grabbed')
    clock.tick()
print(clock.get_fps())


This is how the program executes. Notice how it does display.flip and waits on the OS to do VSYNC at some refresh rate (usually 60FPS). In this spot many games and multimedia apps have some spare time to do other work.

Waiting for VSYNC is the perfect spot to do GC!

Trace of program execution when doing GC in background thread.
1) at top of loop
2) tell GC thread to collect
3) flipping display. GIL released
4) GC THREAD: calling gc_collect_step
5) GC THREAD: Waiting to do gc.
6) finished flipping. GIL grabbed
1) at top of loop
2) tell GC thread to collect
3) flipping display. GIL released
4) GC THREAD: calling gc_collect_step
5) GC THREAD: Waiting to do gc.
6) finished flipping. GIL grabbed
1) at top of loop
2) tell GC thread to collect
3) flipping display. GIL released
4) GC THREAD: calling gc_collect_step
5) GC THREAD: Waiting to do gc.
6) finished flipping. GIL grabbed
On my bench-marking setup this gives an increase of 11% frames per second on average. From 42 FPS to 47 FPS on average. Note, for this benchmark python2.7 gets 51 FPS on average.

Running garbage collection in a thread should be able to improve the performance on pypy of many apps which wait on the GIL.


Our performance goal.


Our performance goal is very little variance between frames and no spikes above 0.013. 0.013 is about the amount of time we have to do our work before we ask the frame to be flipped at 60 times per second.

Python 2.7 baseline measurement.


So we have something to compare against, here is a measurement of Python 2.7.

Note various spikes in performance, 51 FPS on average with many frames falling in the 0.005 to 0.007 range (below the required 0.013). The the funny spike at the start. I'm not sure why this is happening now compared to when I measured last year. The underlying OS has changed, or perhaps some other software is running on my computer.

Remember: Our performance goal is very little variance between frames and no spikes above 0.013. 0.013 is about the amount of time we have to do our work before we ask the frame to be flipped.

Python 2.7 isn't that bad here. It doesn't spike over 0.013 but it does have quite a lot of variance in some frames.


PyPy 6.0.0 (last release, does not include new GC stuff).

What about PyPy 6.0.0 which came out some months after my experiments last year. Here we see 0.005 to 0.010 with some spikes of around 0.0125 and higher. This older version of PyPy fails the performance goal.

PyPy 6.0.0 gc.disable().


What if we just disable the garbage collector entirely? (Apart from memory growing until the program starts swapping or crashes). After a few seconds it just starts to slow down a lot.


Time per frame on PyPy nightly (6.1.0 alpha0). gc.disable(), gc.collect_step().


This is using gc.disable() at the top of the main loop, and calling the new gc.collect_step() just before display.flip when most of the work has been done already. Remember that display.flip releases the GIL and waits for VSYNC at 60FPS.

Here we see the average FPS at around 42 with times mostly between 0.006 and 0.008. At the beginning and end there are some spikes. But mostly things stay below the magical 0.015 seconds required to get below 60 FPS. Here is another measurement.

With this second measurement we see that something is going on at the start and at the end again.  Again, mostly there are few spikes above 0.015 and things mostly stay between 0.006 and 0.008. This capture does show one spike, but I found this hard to reproduce.

This is a great improvement over CPython in all except average FPS. The timings in the graphs are the work that is done before display.flip is called.

PyPy nightly (6.1.0 alpha) GC in a thread, gc.disable().


Finally we have the GC running in a thread. This gives us 47.5 FPS on average. Most times stay between 0.6 and 0.8, however now there is a large number of spikes. None of them go above 0.015, but quite a few go above our goal of 0.013.

Why are these spikes here? I'm not sure. It needs to be investigated some more.
I ran the benchmark a few more times, and it seemed to spike less.




So then I switched to using threading.Event instead of threading.Queue, and there seemed to be less spikes over multiple runs. Probably using a lower level synchronization primitive (like threading.Lock) could improve things more. Also using a lower level primitive at C level would probably work even better. Additionally I'm not using the pypy36 which has some (hopefully) improved threading.Event and threading.Queue implementations.



Here's the example using Event instead of Queue.

from threading import Event, Thread, Lock
import pygame

def gc_collect_step(event):
    """ this calls the gc in a thread.
    """
    while True:
        print '5) GC THREAD: Waiting to do gc.'
        event.wait()
        print '4) GC THREAD: calling gc_collect_step'
        if hasattr(gc, "collect_step"):
            gc.collect_step()
        event.clear()

gc_event = Event()
worker = Thread(target=gc_collect_step, args=(gc_event,))
worker.setDaemon(True)
worker.start()


pygame.display.set_mode((640, 480))
clock = pygame.time.Clock()
while True:
    print('1) at top of loop')
    pygame.event.get()
    gc_event.set()

    print('2) tell GC thread to collect')
    print('3) flipping display. GIL released')
    pygame.display.flip()
    print ('6) finished flipping. GIL grabbed')
    clock.tick()
print(clock.get_fps())


Also, you can find the pypy-bench-testsprite.py in a gist. It needs to be run within the pygame examples folder.

PyPy meets performance goals for games

In conclusion:
/Happy dance/
The results that Antonio posted in "PyPy for low latency systems" also appear in the experiments I made. Worst case performance can be increased, and the performance spikes can be removed.

PyPy meets the performance goals for games now if you disable the gc at the top of the main loop, and call the gc collection every frame. The spikes that were there before are gone. The variance in performance is actually less than CPython.

Calling GC in a thread is a viable option which increases the average FPS very close to CPython levels. However some more work needs to be done to try and find a way that avoids the increased performance jitter. Note, that this jitter is still at acceptable levels.

Running the GC in a thread can probably be used for a peak performance increase by many apps  which release the GIL for IO or CPU intensive operations.

I'd like to remind people that this benchmark is a worst case for PyPy and games. In that there is also CPython API used rather than CFFI(fasted ffi on PyPy), and the benchmark contained not much pure python code. If you were also doing physics, collision detection and other stuff in pure python PyPy would pull ahead. Also this was using pygame with SDL1 so that I could sort-of compare performance to the previous time. Pygame 2 with SDL2 runs this benchmark much faster because of hardware acceleration. Another reminder that PyPy 6.1.0 isn't released yet, so the results will differ compared to the nightly version.

The combination of PyPy's JIT with the Cython ahead of time compiler makes a formidable combination. I'm looking forward to using them all with the hardware acceleration that pygame 2 provides (Vulkan, Metal, OpenGL, Direct3d, ...).

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Activating the McAfee via mcafee.com/activate could be the one-stop solution to all the security concern. McAfee is a mcafee.com/activate renowned and trusted American based MNC which is popular for producing the antivirus software to protect the device against the online attacks.Enter 25 digit activation code is necessary to activate mcafee product key. mcafee.com/activate McAfee is an antivirus software that helps you protect your device and personal / important information or data from Threats, Viruses, Malware, Trojans, and so on.With McAfee.com/Activate, you can prevent devices and network mcafee.com/activate against threats like malware, worms, spyware and runs in the background and does not cause any problem nor slows down the computer.
Nikita Soni said…

Norton web security is commonly used antivirus gives the least requesting to use and most intutive affirmation for your PC and your mobiles .present it and negligence viruses,spyware,root-units - , Download norton 360 hackers.for more nuances visit. norton.com/setup To enact the Norton setup, select the Activate Now option at the base. To recharge the membership norton.com/setup for Norton, select the Help choice and snap on Enter item key. Cautiously type the right Norton item key in the clear. Snap on the Next catch.Go through with for more details norton.com/setup Download Norton Mobile Security and Antivirus application that can shield your records from getting affected from any online malware or contamination norton setup product key.

Go to the Norton Security Online page and click Get Norton Security Online. Type in your Xfinity ID and password, if you're asked. Create a Norton account, then sign in. Choose whether you want to install [norton.com/setup it on this device or another one. Start your installation. Click Run. Let the program run. If Windows asks for permission, click Yes.Norton help to verify your devices against antiviruses and help to progress and keep up your information from compitetior. Present norton.com/setup norton in your pc click here for nuances.To install Norton Security Online on a different computer, log in to that computer and then download Norton. norton.com/setup Comcast now offers Norton Security Online instead of Norton Security Suite, and it is available at the Xfinity website. You are not required to update to Norton Security Online. Norton Security Online has a new look and feel.
Nikita Soni said…
Download Norton Security. Manage Users & Alerts. Reset My Password. Find My Account Number. Monitor Home Security. Upgrade My Service. Find My Xfinity ID. Get Help & Support. Program My Remote. norton.com/setup Submit Feedback. Find an Xfinity Store. Move My Services. Run Internet Speed Test. Bundles & Promotions. Customer Guarantee. Compare the Competition.Norton Internet Security gave you virus protection. Norton 360 gives you much more. Norton 360 plans give you device security to help protect PCs, Mac® and mobile devices against norton.com/setup viruses and malware, plus new ways to help protect your devices and online privacy – all in a single solution.If you want to download and install Norton on Windows, then you can follow the provided steps: Open the internet browser and input norton.com/setup. Click on Sign In to the account. norton.com/setup Go to the Norton download link on the Get Started page.
Nikita Soni said…
Here's everything you need to know about the HBO Max app on Fire TV. You will need to use another device to go to hbomax.com/tvsignin HBO Max is the streaming platform that bundles all of HBO together with even more of your favorite TV series, blockbuster movies hbomax.com/tvsignin plus new Max Originals. HBO Max is available on VIZIO SmartCast TVs by casting hbomax.com/tvsignin from the HBO Max App on your Mobile device, or with Apple AirPlay. Stream HBO award-winning.

Hbo Max is still isnt available directly on Roku or Amazon Fire TV streaming ... Com / tvsignin, which is the TV provider hbomax.com/tvsignin login page for HBO Max.HBO Max on your TV and choose Sign In (or try to play a show hbomax.com/tvsignin browser on your phone or a computer and type hbomax.com/tvsignin. Get comfy, because you’ve got 100 years of epic entertainment in your hands. You’ll have unlimited access to all of HBO, together hbomax.com/tvsignin with even more favorites from Sesame Workshop, DC, Warner Bros., and more.
Nikita Soni said…

The HBO Max content offering is a superset of what was available hbomax.com/tvsignin under the Now moniker, with the same $14.99 monthly subscription price.HBO Max is a new streaming service with an extensive library. hbomax.com/tvsignin Here's an HBO Max show and movies list including original series and more.To complete the HBO Max TV sign in process,hbomax.com/tvsignin choose the button below and then enter the code from your TV. The HBO Store offers free products sometimes ...

Complete the HBO Max TV sign in process by entering the code from your device. hbomax.com/tvsignin Watch and chat now with millions of other fans from around the world.‎HBO Max is the streaming platform that bundles all of HBO together with even hbomax.com/tvsignin more of your favorite TV series, blockbuster movies, plus new Max Originals.Complete the HBO Max TV sign in process by entering the code from your device. hbomax.com/tvsignin Catch hit movies, popular shows, live news, sports & more the web or on your ..
Nikita Soni said…
“Roku devices don't appear to stream when using AirPlay from the HBO Max app. hbomax.com/tvsignin I followed the directions and clicked the link that said hbomax.com/tvsignin WarnerMedia's new streaming service, HBO Max, is set to ... To complete the HBO Max TV sign in process, choose the button below. To complete the HBO Max TV sign in process, choose the button below and then enter the code from your TV. hbomax.com/tvsignin Signing up for an HBO subscription is not allowed ...

HBO Max is the latest streaming service to take on Netflix and Disney+. It includes hbomax.com/tvsignin content from HBO Go and HBO Now, WarnerMedia. HBO Max is a new subscription video streaming service launching on Samsung Smart TV on May 27th, which brings the best of HBO with more original hbomax.com/tvsignin content, past seasons of your favorite shows, and movies.Visit HBOMax.com or download the app on your hbomax.com/tvsignin Apple or Android device and login with your Optimum or Altice One account. 
Nikita Soni said…
Aka.ms/mfasetup is a security enhancement that allows you to present at least aka.ms/mfasetup two pieces of evidence, or factors, to identify yourself when logging into an account. It is a method of confirming your identity by using a combination of two different factors – 1) Something you know (password) and 2) aka.ms/mfasetup something you have.Microsoft wrote it recently in their security blog. You have 99.9 percent less chance of a hacker Office 365 account if you don't have an MFA! A 2nd factor is really necessary. Often hackers already have your password in their possession. aka.ms/mfasetup Activating aka.ms/mfasetup to protect your identity is very important. If someone gets access to your mailbox this person can also misuse your identity. But important is not only to protect your mailbox but also your Google Account, your Facebook, aka.ms/mfasetup PayPal and other important accounts you use.
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I thank the author for these experiments. Their results will be useful to many programmers who use Python as their main language and are hesitant to switch to this language interpreter. PyPy is a compatible Python interpreter that is a decent alternative to CPython 2.7, 3.6, and soon 3.7. By installing and running your application with it, you can achieve a noticeable increase in speed. Keep in mind that PyPy's performance is directly dependent on what your code is doing. PyPy is slower in some situations. However, on average, it is 4.3 times faster than Python. More information about the interpreter itself and its application can be found in Facebook posts in which the authors tell you how to use it. I found there a couple of dozen posts on this topic and noticed that most often they had at least 30 thousand likes! I'm sure this is because their authors used the services https://soclikes.com/buy-facebook-likes to quickly increase the number of likes.
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Mike Johnson said…
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