Draft 3 of, ^Let's write a unit test!^
So, I started writing this for people who want to 'contribute' to Community projects, and also Free Libre or Open source projects. Maybe you'd like to get involved, but are unsure of where to begin? Follow along with this tutorial, and peek at the end in the "what is a git for?" section for explanations of what some of the words mean.Draft 1, 2018/07/18 - initial draft.
Draft 2, 2019/11/04 - two full unit test examples, assertions, making a pull request, use python 3 unittest substring search, "good first issue" is a thing now. Started "What is a git for? Jargon" section.
Draft 3, 2020/12/12 - default branch name is main.
What's first? A test is first.A unit test is a piece of code which tests one thing works well in isolation from other parts of software. In this guide, I'm going to explain how to write one using the standard python unittest module, for the pygame game library. You can apply this advice to most python projects, or free/libre open source projects in general.
A minimal test.What pygame.draw.ellipse should do: http://www.pygame.org/docs/ref/draw.html#pygame.draw.ellipse
Where to put the test: https://github.com/pygame/pygame/blob/main/test/draw_test.py
def test_ellipse(self): import pygame.draw surf = pygame.Surface((320, 200)) pygame.draw.ellipse(surf, (255, 0, 0), (10, 10, 25, 20))
All the test does is call the draw function on the surface with a color, and a rectangle. That's it. A minimal, useful test. If you have a github account, you can even edit the test file in the browser to submit your PR. If you have email, or internet access you can email me or someone else on the internet and ask them to do add it to pygame.
An easy test to write... but it provides really good value.
- Shows an example of using the code.
- Makes sure the function arguments are correct.
- Makes sure the code runs on 20+ different platforms and python versions.
- No "regressions" (Code that starts failing because of a change) can be introduced in the future. The code for draw ellipse with these arguments should not crash in the future.
But why write a unit test anyway?Unit tests help pygame make sure things don't break on multiple platforms. When your code is running on dozens of CPUs and just as many operating systems things get a little tricky to test manually. So we write a unit test and let all the build robots do that work for us.
A great way to contribute to libre/free and open source projects is to contribute a test. Less bugs in the library means less bugs in your own code. Additionally, you get some public credit for your contribution.
The best part about it, is that it's a great way to learn python, and about the thing you are testing. Want to know how graphics algorithms should work, in lots of detail? Start writing tests for them.
The simplest test is to just call the function. Just calling it is a great first test. Easy, and useful.
At the time of writing there are 39 functions that aren't even called when running the pygame tests. Why not join me on this adventure?
Let's write a unit test!In this guide I'm going to write a test for an pygame.draw.ellipse to make sure a thick circle has the correct colors in it, and not lots of black spots. There's a bunch of tips and tricks to help you along your way. Whilst you can just edit a test in your web browser, and submit a PR, it might be more comfortable to do it in your normal development environment.
Grab a fork, and let's dig in.Set up git for github if you haven't already. Then you'll want to 'fork' pygame on https://github.com/pygame/pygame so you have your own local copy.
Note, we also accept patches by email, or on github issues. So you can skip all this github business if you want to. https://www.pygame.org/wiki/patchesandbugs
- Fork the repository (see top right of the pygame repo page)
- Make the change locally. Push to your copy of the fork.
- Submit a pull request
$ git clone https://github.com/YOUR-USERNAME/pygame $ cd pygame/ $ python test/draw_test.py ... ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 3 tests in 0.007s OK
You'll see all of the tests in the test/ folder.
Browse the test folder online: https://github.com/pygame/pygame/tree/main/test
If you have an older version of pygame, you can use this little program to see the issue.
There is some more extensive documentation in the test/README file. Including on how to write a test that requires manual interaction.
Standard unittest module.pygame uses the standard python unittest module. With a few enhancements to make it nicer for developing C code.
Fun fact: pygame included the unit testing module before python did.We will go over the basics in this guide, but for more detailed information please see:
How to run a single test?Running all the tests at once can take a while. What if you just want to run a single test?
If we look inside draw_test.py, each test is a class name, and a function. There is a "DrawModuleTest" class, and there should be a "def test_ellipse" function.
So, let's run the test...
~/pygame/ $ python test/draw_test.py DrawModuleTest.test_ellipse Traceback (most recent call last): ... AttributeError: type object 'DrawModuleTest' has no attribute 'test_ellipse'
|Starting with failure. Our test isn't there yet.|
Good. This fails. It's because we don't have a test called "def test_ellipse" in there yet. What there is, is a method called 'todo_test_ellipse'. This is an extension pygame testing framework has so we can easily see which functionality we still need to write tests for.
~/pygame/ $ python -m pygame.tests --incomplete...
Looks like there are currently 39 functions or methods without a test. Easy pickings.
Python 3 to the rescue.Tip: Python 3.7 makes it easier to run tests with the magic "-k" argument. With this you can run tests that match a substring. So to run all the tests with "ellipse" in their name you can do this:
~pygame/ $ python3 test/draw_test.py -k ellipse
Digression: Good first issue, low hanging fruit, and help wanted.
Something that's easy to do.
A little digression for a moment... what is a good first issue?
Low hanging fruit is easy to get off the tree. You don't need a ladder, or robot arms with a claw on the end. So I guess that's what people are talking about in the programming world when they say "low hanging fruit".
|pygame low hanging fruit|
Many projects keep a list of "good first issue", "low hanging fruit", or "help wanted" labeled issues. Like the pygame "good first issue" list. Ones other people don't think will be all that super hard to do. If you can't find any on there labeled like this, then ask them. Perhaps they'll know of something easy to do, but haven't had the time to mark one yet.
One little trick is that writing a simple test is quite easy for most projects. So if they don't have any marked "low hanging fruit", or "good first issue" go take a look in their test folder and see if you can add something in there.
Don't be afraid to ask questions. If you look at an issue, and you can't figure it out, or get stuck on something, ask a nice question in there for help.
Digression: Contribution guide.There's usually also a contribution guide. Like the pygame Contribute wiki page. Or it may be called developer docs, or there may be a CONTRIBUTING.md file in the source code repository. Often there is a separate place the developers talk on. For pygame it is the pygame mailing list, but there is also a chat server which is a bit more informal.
A full example of a test.The unittest module arranges tests inside functions that start with "test_" that live in a class.
Here is a full example:
import unittest class TestEllipse(unittest.TestCase): def test_ellipse(self): import pygame.draw surf = pygame.Surface((320, 200)) pygame.draw.ellipse(surf, (255, 0, 0), (10, 10, 25, 20)) if __name__ == '__main__': unittest.main()
You can save that in a file yourself(test_draw1.py for example) and run it to see if it passes.
Committing your test, and making a Pull Request.Here you need to make sure you have "git" setup. Also you should have "forked" the repo you want to make changes on, and done a 'git clone' of it.
# create a "branch" git checkout -b my-draw-test-branch # save your changes locally. git commit test/draw_test.py -m "test for the draw.ellipse function" # push your changes git push origin my-draw-test-branch
Here we see a screenshot of a terminal running these commands.
|Here we see the commands to commit something and push it up to a repo.|
When you git push it prints out these instructions:
remote: Create a pull request for 'my-draw-test-branch' on GitHub by visiting: remote: https://github.com/YOURUSERNAME/pygame/pull/new/my-draw-test-branch
You can also go to your online fork to create a pull request there.
Writing your pull request text.When you create a pull request, you are saying "hey, I made these changes. Do you want them? What do you think? Do you want me to change anything? Is this ok?"
It's usually good to link your pull request to an "issue". Maybe you're starting to fix an existing problem with the code.
|Different "checks" are run by robots to try and catch problems before the code is merged in.|
Testing the result with assertEquals.
How about it we want to test if the draw function actually draws something?
Put this code into test_draw2.py
import unittest class TestEllipse(unittest.TestCase): def test_ellipse(self): import pygame.draw black = pygame.Color('black') red = pygame.Color('red') surf = pygame.Surface((320, 200)) surf.fill(black) # The area the ellipse is contained in, is held by rect. # # 10 pixels from the left, # 11 pixels from the top. # 225 pixels wide. # 95 pixels high. rect = (10, 11, 225, 95) pygame.draw.ellipse(surf, red, rect) # To see what is drawn you can save the image. # pygame.image.save(surf, "test_draw2_image.png") # The ellipse should not draw over the black in the top left spot. self.assertEqual(surf.get_at((0, 0)), black) # It should be red in the middle of the ellipse. middle_of_ellipse = (125, 55) self.assertEqual(surf.get_at(middle_of_ellipse), red) if __name__ == '__main__': unittest.main()
|Red ellipse drawn at (10, 11, 225, 95)|
What is a git for? Jargon.jargon - internet slang used by programmers. Rather than use a paragraph to explain something, people made up all sorts of strange words and phrases.
git - for sharing versions of source code. It lets people work together, and provides tools for people to.
pull request (PR) - "Dear everyone, I request that you git pull my commits.". A pull request is a conversation starter. "Hey, I made a PR. Can you have a look?". When you "git push" your commits (upload your changes).
unit test - does this thing(unit) even work(test)?!!? A program to test if another program works (how you think it should). Rather than test manually over and over again, a unit test can be written and then automatically test your code. A unit test is a nice example of how to use what you've made too. So when you do a pull request the people looking at it know what the code is supposed to do, and that the machine has already checked the code works for them.
assert - "assert 1 == 1". An assert is saying something is true. "I assert that one equals one!". You can also assert variables.
This is a draft remember? So what is there left to finish in this doc?
Any feedback? Leave an internet comment. Or send me an electronic mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org
It's a bit of a weird book. There's a little bit of swearing in it (consider yourself fucking warned), and all profits go towards pygame development (the library, the community, and the website).